The other day, I introduced the five-seventh and seventy-five key rhythms of typical songs.
→Related article “Introductory Waka Poetry Class Song Rhythm (57 and 75 keys)”
By the time of the Kokinshu, the Naga style had already declined, and the Tanka style became the mainstream. Along with this, most of the rhythms of songs became based on the seventy-five keys.
Then, a certain feature stands out, the division between the upper and lower clauses. The number of poems in which the upper haiku describes the scenery and the lower haiku describes the sentiment is clearly increasing. This is especially noticeable in the Sandaishu, and the fact that there are many poems with prefaces is an expression of the awareness of the division between upper and lower.
"Upper verse = landscape", "lower verse = feeling".
If you are thinking of trying to compose waka, start by constructing a poem using this as the basic pattern.
Even though the upper and lower clauses are separated, they are closely related. Of course that's true, otherwise the poem wouldn't be complete as a whole piece of work.
but! In fact, there are probably many songs that do not. This is especially noticeable in the works of modern and ancient times, and in a way this contributes to the unique, mysterious style of this collection of poems. By the way, the former relationship is called ``Oya-ku'' and the latter is called ``Oya-ku.'' Once you get used to adding upper and lower clauses, try adjusting the balance between ``main clauses'' and ``low clauses.''
Now, this time I will introduce the characteristic pattern of how the upper and lower haiku are connected (connected) from Hyakunin Isshu Uta.
connected by particles
The pattern in which the upper and lower clauses connect in the most gentle way is connected by a particle. Although it is simple, the impression you receive from the poem as a whole can vary greatly depending on how you communicate with it.
*The song example introduces "Te・ni・wo・ha", which is often heard as a particle.
“In the evening, the rice leaves of Kadota are covered / Autumn wind blows in the mellow reeds” (Minamoto no Tsunenobu)
“Awajishima Kayofu: The Voice of the Chidori / Suma’s Suma Guard Keeping the Night Nezamenu” (Kanemasa Minamoto)
“The summer night is still early in the morning, but the moon shines in the clouds.” (Kiyohara Fukayachi)
“The autumn fields are covered with white dew and wind, and impenetrable balls are scattered” (Tomoyasu Bunya)
connected by preposition
The most typical form of waka poetry is communication through ``introductions.'' It is no exaggeration to say that the waka poems of the Sandaishu are a competition of prepositions. The difference from the previous example is that the preposition is just a metaphor. Therefore, we connect people by saying, ``Like ○○, do ○○.''
“The tail of a mountain bird with its feet swaying / I sleep through the long night, perhaps alone.” (Kakimoto Hitomaro)
“Even between the reeds of Nanba Lagoon / Let this world pass by” (Ise)
``The boatman who crosses Yura's door stops / Maybe it's the path of love that I don't even know about.'' (Yoshitada Sone)
Cut and connect
When the upper clause, or the third clause, is stopped or denotatively stopped, the upper and lower clauses are grammatically separated. However, when both poems describe the same scenery or sentiments, the break between the poems is hardly noticed, so there is no sense of discomfort as a unified poem.
As mentioned above, this type of relationship is called a ``parent haiku.'' There are some poems in Hyakunin Isshu that are separated, but they are all composed of parent haiku, so this is not a problem for appreciation.
“Wakana Tsumu goes out into the spring field for your sake / Snow is falling on my clothes” (Emperor Mitsukou)
“The Cherry Blossoms on the Onoe of Takasago are in front of each other/The mist of Toyama is also aarana” (Masafusa Oe)
“Double cherry blossoms in Nara no Miyako / Kefu Kokonoe Nihohi Nuru?” (Daisuke Ise)
However, in modern and ancient times, songs in ``shoku'' stand out, and the upper and lower haiku combine different scenery and feelings, making it difficult to appreciate them. By the way, in haiku, the effect of ``sparse haiku'' is called ``the wonder of combination,'' and in surrealism, it is ``depaysement,'' and both hope for an unexpected ``extra emotion'' in the sense of discomfort that occurs when different things meet.
“If you look around, there are no flowers or autumn leaves / Autumn evening in Ura no Tomaya” (Sadaie Fujiwara)
As mentioned above, when there is a separation between upper and lower, it is basic to express the scenery in the upper haiku and the feelings in the lower haiku. The reason is that this is the basic word order (SOV) of Japanese. However, there are quite a few songs that reverse this, or ``invert'' it. As you can clearly see from the sample song, Japanese people suddenly feel uncomfortable when feelings (verbs) are expressed from the beginning. Additionally, since the upper clause ends, there is a greater rhythm in the communication with the lower clause. The songs of inversion are exquisitely composed with such an effect in mind.
“The mountain village is lonely in the winter / When you think that there is no one or grass” (Minamoto Souyu)
“The color of the flowers is changing/The colors of the flowers are changing/The color of my body is changing” (Ono Komachi)
“The white chrysanthemum flower that folds in front of the heart / The white chrysanthemum that closes the window in the first frost” (Bonkouchi Mitsune)
(Written by: Waka DJ Ucchi)
Learn the basics of waka poetry and try reciting it!
We are holding a "Utajuku" with the goal of learning from representative classical works and being able to compose traditional "Waka" on an individual basis!