Kimono and Waka Poetry ~The sleeves say as much as the mouth~


This time's theme is "Kimono" and "Waka".
This elegant clothing, which symbolizes the Heian aristocracy, and waka poetry have a relationship that cannot be separated by any judgment.

Even though it is simply called a kimono, there are many different styles, and people wore it appropriately depending on the TPO.
For men, the first thing to wear is the sokutai and the robe, which are the formal attire of aristocrats and can be considered modern formal wear.
A ``Naogi'' can be compared to a jacket style for everyday wear, and a ``Karigi'', which is easy to move around in, can be compared to a blouson.

Audio distribution of this article "No. 13 Kimono and Waka Poetry. The sleeves say as much as the mouth"
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By the way, the jacket worn during formal attire is called ``袍'', and its color was determined by rank.
For example, 3rd and above ranks are ``purple'', and 4th and 5th positions are ``scarlet''.
The emperor's kimono, ``Korozen,'' was said to be ``absolutely forbidden'' because no one else was allowed to wear it.

For women, it is ``Junihitoe'' after all.
This heavy, long costume typical of Heian women is actually the costume of the ``women'' who served in the imperial court.
Empresses and others wore formal attire in a lighter style called ``uchi-gata.''

By the way, although it has the name ``Junihitoe,'' it does not mean that they were actually wearing 12 layers of clothing.
So how many layers were you wearing?
First, you put on the ``kosode,'' and then on top of that, you put on the ``single robe,'' ``five robes,'' ``uchi,'' the ``outer garment,'' and finally the ``karagi.''
10 pieces in total! This is the standard style.
Either way, it's a huge number.
If you think about what kind of work you could do while dressed like this, the only job you could do would be to be your daughter's teacher.

By the way, what do you think is the biggest feature of a kimono?
When compared to so-called Western clothes, the obi and collar are also very unique.
It can be said that what makes a kimono a kimono is its ``sleeves''.

Kosode, large sleeve, furisode...
The difference in the sleeves makes the difference in the kimono.

During the Heian period, ``Osode'', in which the cuffs were not sewn together, was the norm.
The wide cuffs also make it possible to enjoy the color scheme of layered kimonos called ``kasane no irome.''
For example, if you choose a color scheme called ``Scent of Red Plum'', you can see the color scheme of ``blue, dark red plum, red plum, red plum, and light red plum'' peeking out from the cuff.
There were many patterns like this defined depending on the season and event.
So you might think, ``That girl is so lame that it's still red plum even though the cherry blossoms are beginning to bloom.''

By the way, wide cuffs mean good ventilation.
You could say it was a way to wear layers even in the summer.
→Related article “Summer is the greatest pain for the Heian aristocrats.

On the other hand, a kosode with the cuffs sewn together is called a kosode.
The women of the Heian court used this as "underwear."
From the Kamakura period onwards, this underwear gradually replaced outerwear, evolving into the so-called ``kimono,'' which emphasized functionality over appearance.

The history of kimono is right on the sleeve! That's about it.

Now, let's get to the main topic.
This costume, which adorned the Heian nobility, has been featured in various waka poems.

For example, this song.
410 “I want to travel all the way to get used to wearing Chinese robes and travel all the way” (Narihira Ariwara)
It is a parade of related words for ``wither'', ``褄'', ``hari'', ``wear'', and ``robe''.

554 "When I'm in love, I'll return my night clothes and put them on." (Ono Komachi)
At that time, it was said that if you slept with your clothes inside out, you would be able to meet your loved one in your dreams.
It's a kind of spell, but what a lovelorn maiden does has never changed.

715 “When you hear the voice of a cicada, it makes you sad. If you think that the summer clothes will be pale and human,” (Ki Tomonori)
This is a song that appears in the second half of Koi. She compares the thin fabric of her summer clothes to the other person's callousness.

843 “The ink-dyed coat is like a cloud, and it only rains tears.” (Mibu Tadamine)
This is a song of sorrow. Sumizome means ``mourning clothes,'' and the song is about the rain of tears falling on the sleeves (the pouches under the sleeves).

637 “When the sun rises in Shinonome and the sun rises, the trembling kinuginu becomes sad.” (Yomijin Shirazu)
The sky in the east began to brighten slightly, which was a signal for the two who had met to part ways. This is the so-called ``farewell after the morning''.
``Onoga kinuginu'' means that each person puts on their own clothes, in other words, prepares to go home.
By the way, there was no such thing as a futon in those days, so when two people slept together, they layered each other's clothes on top of each other.
The lingering scent may have reminded you of a loved one.

1012 “Yamabuki’s flower-colored robe, no matter who asked her questions, she didn’t answer, and made her into a beak” (Sose Hoshi)
Yamabuki's stacks have pale leaves on the front and yellow on the back. This color was dyed not with actual Yamabuki, but with ``Yasushi'', which is the word for ``Yasushi'' and ``Kuchashi''.

Now, as I said earlier, speaking of kimono, it's the sleeves.
There are so many songs where ``sode'' appears in the song.

22 "Kasugano's young greens are picked, Shiratae's sleeves are waving, and people are wandering" (Ki Tsurayuki)
If you wave your hand with a large sleeve, you will be noticeable even from a distance.

309 “For those who hold the maple leaves in their sleeves and enjoy the autumn season, it is for those who see it as a limit.” (Sose Hoshi)
You can also use sleeves like this. It's like having a big bag attached to it.

32 ``When folded, the sleeves become scented, there are plum blossoms, and here the warbler sings'' (Yomito Shirazu)
The scent of hand-broken plums transfers to my sleeves, and a warbler chirps there.
It's a very intellectual scene, but this is the true essence of Kokin Wakashu!

And speaking of how to write ``sode'', this is the standard one.
“Sleeves wet with tears”!

577 “Crying at the sound, cold in the spring rain, wet sleeves, questions and answers” (Chisato Oe)
574 “Even on the dream road, there is dew and darkness, and the sleeves are still dry” (Ki Tsurayuki)
763 "The still rain is falling on my sleeve, and you are in my heart, and autumn is coming." (Yomijin Shirazu)
All three of these songs are love songs.
My sleeves have no time to dry with the tears of unrequited love...

Even if you don't say it out loud, you can tell by looking at my sleeve, this love.
That's what it is.

And here is the destination of the song “Sode”.
“Plum blossoms give off their scent, and the shadow of the moon hangs over the sleeves” (Fujiwara Teika)

There was a song earlier that said, ``A warbler chirps on my sleeve where the scent of plum blossoms is on my sleeve.''
This is an incredible song in which the ``light of the moon'' and the ``fragrance of plums'' transferred (reflected) on the sleeves compete with each other.
Terrible artistry, as expected of Teika-sama!
→Related article “Teika vs. Mallarmé: A showdown that transcends the century! Approaching the charm of iconic songs

When the clothes change, the song changes too.
Waka poems are only possible with kimonos, and kimonos are only possible with waka poems.

Learn the basics of waka poetry and try reciting it!

We are holding a "Utajuku" with the goal of learning from representative classical works and being able to compose traditional "Waka" on an individual basis!

季刊誌「和歌文芸」
令和六年冬号(Amazonにて版販売中)

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